Learning Theories for the Twenty First Century: Metacognition

From the article: Pintrich, P., R., (2002). The role of metacognitive knowledge in learning, teaching, and assessing. Theory into Practice. 41(4). pp. 219-225

Bloom’s taxonomy for learning included factual, conceptual, and procedural knowledge categories. In the revised edition (Krathwohl, 2002), metacognition is introduced. Three types of metacognitive knowledge were identified. First is strategic knowledge, which consists of general strategies for learning, thinking, and problem-solving. Strategic metacognition is applicable across multiple domains and tasks. Strategic knowledge can be organised according to rehearsal, elaboration, and organisational, and includes such actions as repeating words to memorise, summarising texts, and creating a mind-map to organise thoughts. A learner needs to know when and why to deploy these strategies, which involves the second aspect of metacognition–knowledge of cognition. This aspect also includes awareness of the environmental norms, for example the unique requirements of a specific teacher for a specific type of task. The third aspect is self-knowledge, which includes knowledge of ones strengths and weaknesses. One feature of experts is that they know what they do not know.

One implication for assessment would be a project aimed at combining the highest outcome for cognitive and affective knowledge. A developed personal learning portfolio would seem to require both creativity and metacognition.

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